Wednesday, August 31, 2011

The Earth’s Magnetosphere

The Earth has a strong electric current at its core, which produces an intense magnetic field. This magnetic field holds a magnetosphere in place which contains the Van Allen belts. The magnetosphere consists of regions (belts) surrounding the Earth where charged particles are trapped by the magnetic field. The Earth's magnetic field and the magnetosphere it produces protect us from dangerous radiation from solar flares.
Charged naturally become trapped in a magnetic field; however the density of the Earth's magnetosphere is the highest among the planets of the solar system. In fact the only other rocky planet with a magnetic field is Mercury with field strength 100 times smaller than the Earth's.

The strength of Earth's magnetic field is decreasing and since the magnetosphere is generated by the magnetic field, it is likely decreasing also, although this has not been directly confirmed. If Earth's magnetic field were to decay completely, the magnetosphere would also disappear since there would be nothing to confine the charged particles. Now the planetary dynamo model says that the field will reverse and rebuild but it has to go through a period of collapse before it can reverse.

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Science and Religion

"Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind." Said Albert Einstein

Science and religion are often seen as rivals this is because establishment science and religion some times have conflicts. This a result the Scientific Establishment refusing to allow any consideration of God or the supernatural.  When allowed to do so science and religion can compliment each other. That fact is that religion can inspire scientific research and science can help the understanding of religion.

The point is that science and religion can complement each other. However this requires that science to be open to religious or supernatural concepts. Refusing to even consider religious concepts is being antagonistic to religion.

The scientific establishment refuses any consideration of the supernatural. As a result, when ever religion and mainstream science deal with the same topic there will be conflict.  

This conflict is most evident in origins research where the denial of the supernatural eliminates all consideration of God.  Since God is excluded before any evidence is considered, all attempts to include intelligent involvement in origins is fought passionately. This makes the scientific establishment actively antagonistic to religion and specifically creationists.

The scientific establishment is at fault because they have excluded God and the supernatural right from the start. No consideration of intelligent involvement in origins is allowed and they are antagonistic toward those who violate these rules.

A classic example is Richard Sternberg; a devout evolutionist; who was editor of The Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington in 2004. After he authorized the publication of a paper by Dr. Stephen Meyer that had passed peer-review. The paper “The Origin of Biological Information and the Higher Taxonomic Categories” presented scientific evidence for intelligent design in biology. His decision to publish this paper resulted in persecution by the Smithsonian and the National Center for Science Education and he was forced from his position as editor of this journal. As a result it is likely that no other editor would risk the same fate by publishing an ID friendly paper.

The real controversy is that by refusing any consideration of God the scientific establishment is pushing atheism. So the real controversy is not science vs. religion not Creation vs. Evolution. The real controversy IS Atheism vs. Theism.

In Conclusion the scientific establishment refuses any consideration of God and no dissent on this is tolerated. They have effectively declared war on God and the controversy results form the refusal of theists to bow the knee to atheism.

Monday, August 29, 2011

The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method the description of the general process of scientific observation, it is a general description and not an absolute rule.
  • Observation is the viewing and recording. and measurements of facts and data. Experimentation is one way of engaging in observation. Observation is simply the collection of data
  • A hypothesis is a tentative explanation of an observed phenomenon used to make testable predictions.
  • Predictions are produced by the application of the hypothesis other inputs to predict the results of future observations. These predictions must be unique because the same prediction from two more hypothesizes can’t distinguish between the alternatives.
Testing a hypothesis involves making observations based on the hypothesis so as to see if its predictions agree with the observations.

  1. The observation is made of a known particle of known mass and negative charge following a parabolic path.
  2. The hypothesis is made that a small massive positively charged particle exists at the center of attraction. This is similar to the way the atomic nucleolus was discovered.
  3. The prediction is made of the path of a similar positively charged particle, that it is of the same mass and but opposite charge of first particle. It should follow a hyperbolic path showing that it was deflected.
  4. If prediction occurs, then the prediction succeeds and the hypothesis supported.
  5. If the new particle follows the same path as the first then the prediction fails and the hypothesis falsified so a new hypothesis needed.
  6. The new hypothesis is made of a small neutral extremely high mass particle; possibly a mini black hole; with enough gravity to bend particle paths.
  7. The new prediction for is that neutral particle of the same mass as the first two should follow the same path as the other two particles. If prediction occurs then the prediction succeeds and the new hypothesis supported
Scientific Method is just a general description that works best with controlled experiments. It can test for particular predictions with controlled variables. However, it does not always work well for real world observations. Since variables often not controllable it often can not test for particular predictions.

 It does not always work well for historical sciences were variables are usually not controllable. It such cases particular predictions often can not be test. Furthermore destruction of evidence can come from both natural and manmade sources. Unfortunately manmade destruction of evidence can occur by scientists themselves, such destruction can be both accidental as well as deliberate.

The fact is that the Scientific Method is not always used exactly as described and it’s use varies depending on the situation.

Saturday, August 27, 2011

Thermodynamics in Physics

Thermodynamics is the study in physics that deals with the transfer of energy, the work done by it and the affect on matter. Thermodynamics is dynamic and not kinetic so it is not concerned with the actual energy movement processes. Thermodynamics deals with the results of energy transfer.
There are two main fields of Thermodynamics Classical Thermodynamics and Statistical Thermodynamics.

Thermodynamics was developed as a result of the study of steam engines and was based entirely on empirical measurement and it lead to the four laws of Thermodynamics. In their simplest forms Laws of Thermodynamics can be stated as follows:

  1. 1st Law of Thermodynamics: Energy can be neither created nor destroyed.
  2. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: The amount of unusable energy in a closed system increases.
  3. 3rd Law of Thermodynamics: As the temperature of a substance approaches absolute zero it’s entropy of approaches zero.
  4. 0th Law of Thermodynamics: Two objects in thermal equilibrium with a third object are also in equilibrium with each other.
Note: The 0th Law is called shuch instead of the 4th because it is more fundamental than the 1st law but it was discovered after the other three.

Statistical Thermodynamics works at microscopic as well as macroscopic level. It explains why the four laws of Thermodynamics work as the do as well as explaining things that Classical Thermodynamics can not.

In conclusion the principles of Thermodynamics are the best tested scientific principles known. They are also so general that they apply to everything including the universe itself. Thermodynamics is path independent so it often does not matter how one get from state “A” to state “B” which is why it applies to everything.

An Introduction to Physics

Physics is the study of matter, and energy and their interactions. Physics is more than formulas that you may not be able to make sense of. While physic is scientifically expressed by formulas, it is more than the formulas. It can take the form of practical experience. 
Whether you know it or not physics found is in sports Baseball is a prime example of physics in sports, specifically ballistics. Pool is another example of physics in sports specifically collision physics 

The two main founders of physics are Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton. These two are the main men responsible for establishing modern physics, there were others involved but they were the main ones.

Physics is central to all other physical sciences including Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Cosmology and Geology.  Physics has shown us much about the structure of matter, the nature of Energy and the nature of space and time. Physics has the potential to shown us how the universe works and the nature of reality itself.

Friday, August 26, 2011

New Class of Stellar Body.

Bodies that are too small to be stars and too big to be planets called brown dwarfs have been know for years, but now a body small to be a brown dwarf and too big to be a planet has been found.
Planets like Jupiter can have a “surface” temperature below -200 degrees Fahrenheit. While brown dwarfs can have “surface” temperatures of about   +400 degree Fahrenheit. Labeled a Y-Dwarf this new body which dose not orbit a star has a “surface” temperature of around +80 degrees Fahrenheit which is around room temperature.

The Y-Dwarves are not a lone several Jupiter-sized planets with out stars have been found. It all shows we have a lot to learn about the Universe.

Thursday, August 25, 2011

The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics states the following:

  • The entropy in a closed system always increases.
  • The amount of unusable energy in a closed system increases.
  • It is impossible to turn all of the heat put into a system into work so that you can’t make a 100% efficient engine.

The 2nd law of Thermodynamics is based on the fact that heat will only spontaneously flow from a hot object to a colder object but it never will spontaneously flow from a cold object to  a hot object.

Whenever heat is used to do work a potion of the heat always goes to the colder location. This wasted heat is called entropy. Simply put you can never turn all of the heat into work and percentage of the heat converted in to work it the engines efficiency.  

Now applying work to a system can forced heat to go from a cold object to a hot object, which also reduces entropy, this shows that work can reduce entropy. This process is the basic theory behind air conditioners, refrigerators, and heat pumps.

Entropy is the measure of a system's thermal energy unavailable for conversion into mechanical work. It is also a measure of the equivalent states or multiplicity of a system and there by a measure of the disorder or randomness in a system.

In Classical Thermodynamics entropy is mathematically defined as dS = dQ/T.
These results in the change in entropy as: DS = Q/T.

  • S = entropy
  • Q = Heat energy
  • T = Temperature

In statically thermodynamics entropy is mathematically defined as S = k ln W.
This results in the change in entropy as: DS = k ln W2 / W1.
  •  S = entropy
  •  k = Boltzmann constant
  •  W = the multiplicity of a system.

Entropy and Disorder

The relationship between entropy and disorder is shpwn through the multiplicity of a system which is denoted by W. The multiplicity of disordered states (Wd) is many orders of magnitude grester than the multiplicity of ordered states (Wo) such that Wd >> Wo  this means they Sd >> So.

Since 2nd Law of Thermodynamics shows entropy tends to increase it also shows that the degree of disorder of a systems tends to increases. The only way to increase a system’s order; decreasing entropy; is for work to be performed on the system.

Abiogenesis and 2nd Law

The spontaneous process of life forming from non life by naturalistic means is called Abiogenesis. Now living things are the most ordered and complex systems that are known to exist, In fact even the simplest known living cell is infinitely more organized and complex than the most organized non-living chemical systems known to exist.

As a result the entropy of a living cell is many orders of magnitude lower than the entropy of the same amount non-living chemicals. This means that for abiogenesis to occur it must go against the 2nd law’s tendency towards increasing entropy.

Now it is true that entropy can be decreased by work being performed on a system but there is no evidence for a naturalistic mechanism performing the work needed for such a large decrease in entropy. Without this mechanism the 2nd law suggests that abiogenesis is impossible.

Applied Energy and 2nd Law

The 2nd Law Thermodynamics does indeed show that when energy is applied to a system it can reduce the system’s entropy. What it fails to show how the manner in which energy is applied affects entropy.  It does not show the deference between construction work and a bomb.

Construction work reduces a system’s entropy while bombs increase a system’s entropy.  Unfortunately the 2nd Law does not show the difference.  The result is that additional principle is needed to show this difference and this is also need to really determine if abiogenesis is possible or not.

Wednesday, August 24, 2011

The 1st Law of Thermodynamics

The 1st Law of thermodynamics can be stated as follows
  1. The Law of Conservation of Energy.
  2. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but it can change forms..
  3. Total amount of energy in a closed system remains constant.

The significance of this is that the total amount of energy in the Universe is constant. It is also impossible to get more energy out of a system than is put into it. You can’t get just energy from nothing it has to come from some place. Most often it is stored in the form of some type of fuel but regardless energy has to come from some source. 

The 1st Law of Thermodynamics tells us a lot about what systems are possible and what systems are impossible. Any system that puts out more energy than is put into it from any source is impossible. To be possible a system must it needs to get energy from some place, even if it is not obvious. This does not mean that you can’t get more energy out of a system tan you put into it but it has to come from someplace..

Free Energy is often associated with pseudo-science and conspiracy theories but it is a legitimate scientific term. In classical thermodynamics free energy is the energy in a system available to do work. However “free energy” refers to a group of devices alleged to put out more energy than the user supplies to them. Though I have never seen a convincing demonstration of a free energy device the question here is does free energy violate the 1st Law of thermodynamics? 

The answerer is no as long as the free energy device gets energy from some place. Now there are recognized devices that technically qualify as free energy they include solar cells which get their energy from sun light and wind mills that get their energy from wind. However most alleged free energy devices seek to tape the Universe’s zero point energy. Now it is highly debatable as to whether or not this zero point energy can be taped but in principle it does not violate the 1st law thermodynamics.   

In conclusion the 1st Law of thermodynamics simply says that the amount energy in a closed system remains constant.  This is regardless of how it is changed or is moved around. To add energy to a system it needs to come from some place else.

Tuesday, August 23, 2011

What Science Is

Ironically the biggest problem in science is defining science itself. This problem arises in part from an effort by some to limit the meaning of science in a manner that excludes lines of study and explanation that they specifically want to exclude. These areas of desired exclusion; include a form of Creationism and anything thing else involving God or the supernatural.

An objective definition of Science is:

  • "Systematized knowledge derived from observation, study, and experimentation carried on in order to determine the nature or principles of what is being studied."
  • (Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language)

 Unfortunately many insist on only allowing naturalistic explanations for everything as a qualification of science. The problem is that this artificially limits science to what can be considered even if the truth is outside that cozy little box. Such a limit removes science from being a search for truth and turns it into an atheistic propaganda machine. This is why there is so much conflict between science and religion.  

Monday, August 22, 2011

Seven Tips for Teaching Your Children Science

Getting kids interested in science at an early age is very important. It's easier than you probably think. Science does not have is not something mysterious. It is happening all around us, and you can use everyday things to encourage your children's interest and knowledge.

Most parents believe that they can't help their children with science. But you don't need a advanced scientific degree to teach young children science. All you need is a willingness to try, to observe the world, and to take the time to encourage their natural curiosity.

You can help by having a positive attitude toward science yourself. Then start simply by asking your child questions about the things you see every day. Why do you think that happened? How do you think that works? And then listen to their answer without judging it or judging them. Listening without judging will improve their confidence, and help you determine just what your child does or does not know.

It is possible to turn every day activities into science projects. For example, don't just comment on how bright the moon is one night. Ask questions about why it's brighter tonight, why does it change shape, etc. You can observe the moon's phases throughout a month, and turn that activity into a science project, without even mentioning the words "science project".  For a child that likes cooking, observe how milk curdles when you add vinegar, or how sugar melts into syrup. Try baking a cake and asking why does the cake rise? What happens if you forget to put in some ingredient? Voila! Instant science project idea, without being intimidating to you or your child.

Each kids had different interests so they need different kinds of science projects. A rock collection may interest your younger daughter but your older son will probably need something more involved. Fortunately, it's not hard to find plenty of fun projects. Knowing your child’s interest is the best way to find enjoyable learning activities. Here are some more tips:

  • You should choose activities that are the right level of difficulty for you kid - not too easy nor too hard. If you are not sure, pick something easier since you don't want to discourage a child by making science frustrating.  You can always do the harder project later on.

  • Read the suggested ages on any projects, books or toys labels, but then make sure that the activity is appropriate for your child, regardless of age. Your child's interest and abilities are unique. If a child interested in a topic ,they may be able to do activities that are normally done by older kids, while a child who is not interested may need to do something easier aimed at a younger ages.

  • Consider how well what type of project matches your child's personality and learning style. Is the project meant to be done alone or in a group? Will it require adult help or supervision?

  • You should choose activities matched to your environment. A city full of bright lights at night may not be the best place to study the stars.  But during your vacation to a remote area, you may be able to spark an interest in astronomy.

  • Let your child help choose the project or activity. It's easy enough to ask. Do not overwhelm them, suggest 2 or 3 possibilities. When a child picks something they are interested in, they will enjoy it and learn more from it.

Go ahead. Try it and see for yourself how easy it is the spark the interest of a child.