Thursday, December 29, 2011

Martian Atmosphere found to be Supersaturated with Water.

Mars Express an ESA probe that has been orbiting Mars for several years has measured the water content of the Martian atmosphere using it’s SPICAM spectrometer. IT found that it is above that of saturation a state called supersaturating. This is the first time this type of measurement has been made on a global scale. The result will help in prove our understanding of Mar’s weather.

This result is also consistent with catastrophic Martian geology. If Mars' atmosphere had temporarily been raised to allow surface water by dust from impacts and volcanic activity, when Martian atmospheric pressure dropped as this dust settled the resulting evaporation would supersaturated atmosphere. This state would continue because the low pressure makes rain impossible so the only way to reduce it is for the water to slowly bleed off into space.

Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Levitating Slinky

If you drop a dangling slinky, you would expect it to just fall to the ground but that is not what happens. What actually happens is that the bottom just hovers for a moment until the top collapses on top of it as seem in the video There are two main reasons why this occurs.

This first has to do with newtons law of action reaction. As top falls the spring of the slinky is pulls it down faster the pull of gravity. At the same time the spring is pulling the bottom up countering the pull of gravity. As a result the bottom remains  suspended until the top collapses on to it ending the action reaction effect.
The second is that because the bottom of the slinky is held up by tension and it take the time needed for the top to collapse for the bottom to get the message that the top was dropped.

Tuesday, December 27, 2011

Two Earth size Planets by Discovered Kepler Space Telescope.

Astronomers working with the Kepler Space Telescope have confirmed the discovery of two roughly earth size planets orbiting a star other than our sun. The good news is that these are planets; unlike other claims, are not 2-3 time the size of Earth but actually about the size of the Earth. Designated as Kepler-20e and Kepler-20f they are the smallest planets found out side the solar system so far.

Kepler-20f is slightly bigger than Earth with a diameter of 8,200 miles in diameter, which is only 1.03 x Earth’s 7961 miles. The difference of in diameter 3% suggests that a human could stand on the surface with only a few pounds increase in weight definitely tolerable.

Kepler-20e is slightly smaller than Venus with a diameter of 6,900 miles in diameter, or 0.87 x that of the Earth. For comparison Mars is about O.53 Earth’s diameter and Venus is 0.949.
These two planets two of five known planets orbiting a stat designated Kepler-20 that it 1,000 light years away and a little smaller and dimmer than our sun. The other three planets are Neptune size gas giants.

The bad new for Earth like planet hunters is that these planers are uncomfortably closet o the sun. Kepler-20e obits the star every 6 earth days at 0.0537 AU (Earth’s Orbit is 1 AU) and has an estimated surface temperature of 1,412.33 Fahrenheit. Kepler-20f obits the star every 20 earth days at 0.117 AU and has an estimated surface temperature of 809.33 Fahrenheit. 

What is even stranger about the Kepler-20 system is the planet order. Not only do all five planets orbit closer to their sun than Mercury dose to our sun but they have an odd order. The Solar system has all terrestrial planes closer to the sun than all four gas giants. The Kepler-20 system on the other hand goes gas giant, terrestrial, gas giant, terrestrial, gas giant. This raises yet another issue for planetary formation theory.

Monday, December 26, 2011

Faster than Light Neutrinos Flaw Found

Two Indian physicists have found serious a problem with the experimental observations that neutrinos went faster than Light. That problem is has to do with the fact that if the neutrinos has traveled faster than Light relativity shows that their energy would have actually been much lower than what was actually observed. This throws an interesting wrench in problem.

Interestingly there is a way of reconciling these results that is consistent with established physics, specifically Quantum Mechanics. That solution is that the CERN neutrinos did travel at sublight speeds but only through the space they actually went through and that the instantly skipped the rest of it making their average speed faster than light. Quantum Mechanics has several phenomenon like quantum tunneling that allow this to happen

Looking at Statistical Entropy

Statistical Entropy is probability theory applied to the principle of entropy showing it to be a measurement of the disorder in a system. It is based mainly on the probability of the positions of molecules explaining the tendency; seen in the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics; of entropy to increase. This tendency is because configurations with high entropy are more probable than configurations of low entropy.
The biggest problem with entropy is its tendency to increase. So understanding how to decrease entropy is vary important. The most common answer is adding energy to the system as if that is all that is needed to decrease its entropy.  But such an answer is overly simplistic since when energy is applied to a system the way it affects the system’s entropy depends on the way the energy is applied to the system. Consider the difference between construction work and a bomb. Construction work will decrease the entropy of a building under construction. One the other hand a bomb with the same amount of energy and on the same site will inevitably increase the site’s entropy.

This shows that the manner by which energy is applied to a system affects how that energy changes that system’s entropy. What is needed is a general principle that describes this difference and statistical entropy shows exactly how and when entropy can be decreased it shows how to produce order from disorder.

Friday, December 23, 2011

No joke, Water found on the sun!.

Yes an international team of scientists, including a chemist form the University of Waterloo has indeed found water on the sun. However before you go running off complaining that its impossible, it is extremely hot steam and not liquid water but it’s there.

The steam is found in dark sum spots and was identified by water’s spectral signature. The water produces a stellar green house effect that influences the spots output of energy.

What makes it even more interesting is that the team had discovered the spectral absorption lines that made the discovery possible. They then found the signature in data from the sun.

Thursday, December 22, 2011

CERN Traps Antimatter Atoms

Scientists have successfully produced and trapped Antimatter hydrogen. They have managed to keep it in a magnetic bottle. In the past the Antimatter hydrogen has managed to leak out and get annihilated. This is the first time that any degree of long term storage of antimatter atoms has been achieved.

The importance of this is that real long term storage of antimatter atoms is need if antimatter is ever going to be used as an energy source. While the math of a real warp drive is now in place, like it’s Star Trek counter part only antimatter has any hope of providing the needed energy and long term storage of antimatter atoms beings this a  step closer.

Monday, December 19, 2011

NASA Planning to Harpoon Asteroids and Comets

The plan is to shoot a spike in to the asteroid or comet that is designed to collect samples and retune them to Earth. The first probe to use this method is OSIRIS-REx, a probe scheduled to be launch in 2016 to collect samples from an asteroid in 2023.

In preparation for this flight scientists at JPL are using a crossbow to test the penetration of test harpoon to determine how much power to put in the cannon that will shoot it at the asteroid. This is a mission to keep an eye on there is no telling what surprises it will discover.

Saturday, December 10, 2011

Two elements finally get their names.

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry have given elements 114 and 116 their permanent names. They are the chemistry organization with the authority to officially designate the names of elements.

Now called Flerovium (Fl) element 114 is a synthetic element discovered in December 1998 with an atomic weight of 289 and a half life of 2.6 s.

With its new name of livermorium (Lv) element 116 is a synthetic element discovered on July 19, 2000 with an atomic weight of 293 and a half life of 61 ms.

The are two the 118 elements that make up the periodic table and it is these elements that make up every thing we see. This is an amazing fact that everything we see including distant galaxies are made from these elements.

Friday, December 9, 2011

Two enormous suppermassive black holes Discovered.

Calling these truly massive monsters suppermassive black holes would probably be gross understatements because they dwarf the previous record of 6.3 billion times the mass of the sun. Both of these black holes are larger in dynamiter than the entire solar system and could easily swallow us whole.  
They were discovered by way of the Hubble Space Telescope and were found at the centers of other galaxies.

The smaller of the two was found at the center of galaxy NGC 3842 in the consolation Leo and has an estimated distance of about 331 million light-years. It mass is that 9.7 billion Suns but compared to other one it is actually small.

The larger one and undisputed champion of the suppermassive black holes was found at the center of galaxy NGC 4889 in the Coma constellation. This monster of a black hole has a the mass of a whopping 21 billion Suns.

Discoveries like these are show that the universe sill has many mysteries hiding in the depths of space. It needs to be noted that suppermassive black holes like this are so large that planets and even stars could fall through the event horizon intact.

Friday, November 4, 2011

Sedimentation in flowing water

This is an article on sedimentation in flowing water with video


Above is a video illustration of the formation of sedimentary layer in flowing water. It is based on both experimentation and observation. The direction of flow is left to right. Note that all three layers are forming together in the direction of flow. This means that the Principles of Stratigraphy do not necessarily work in the real world.

Thursday, November 3, 2011

Big Foot the Living Gigantopithecus.

Bigfoot or Sasquatch as American Indians call it occasional sightings have occurred right up to the present. It is called Bigfoot from the large foot prints the leave behind but based on the description it is most likely a larger ape.

The most famous Bigfoot footage is the Patterson Film. This film was taken by Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin in 1967 the approximate range to the Bigfoot is about 100 feet. There are those are claims that this film was a hoax bur even if it is; there many other sightings suggesting that Bigfoot could be a real animal. If this film is genuine then it supports the identification of Sasquatch as being a type of large ape. The Yeti of which has been sighted in the Himalayas of Asia. Also known as the abominable snow man; it leaves the same large prints as Sasquatch.

If they are real then what are they? Is there an animal known to science that could account for both groups of sightings? The answer is yes. They are known only by fragmented fossils found in as Asia but they fit the description perfectly. These anumales are a type of large ape called Gigantopithecus. While most of  its fossils are found in Southeast Asia, the possibility that some migration to North America is not impossible. It would stand at 10 feet and would be a prefect match for Bigfoot. So if Bigfoot is real it is most likely a living Gigantopithecus making it a living fossil.

Wednesday, November 2, 2011

Cosmology the Science of the Universe

Cosmology is the scientific discipline dealing with the origin, structure, and relationships of the universe and a cosmology is any theory or doctrine that describes the natural order of the universe. Every civilization has had its cosmology going as far back as is known. Such cosmologies  have usually taken the form of a philosophically based mythology. Todayincreased knowledge in Physics and Chemistry has resulted in a more scientific approach but philosophic assumptions still play a major role in Cosmology.

Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the Universe in 1929 by measuring the redshifts of distant galaxies. In 1998 it was discovered the expansion of the universe to be accelerating based on observations of type Ia supernovae.
Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) is the thermal black body spectrum that is nearly uniform in every direction, It represents a temperature of 2.725 K in that it peaks in the microwave range a frequency of 160.2 GHz, with a wavelength of 1.9 mm. It was first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. The CBR temperature fluctuations discovered by the WMAP data of the entire sky showed an average temperature is 2.725 Kelvin with tiny temperature fluctuations spanning about 0.0002 degrees Celsius.

The Big Bang Cosmology is the current establishment Cosmology. The model starts with all mater and space squeezed into an infinitesimal dot called a singularity. This infinitesimal dot suddenly underwent an extremely energetic expansion commonly described as an explosion. Over time the heat of this expansion cooled eventually forming galaxies, stars, planets and eventually us. CBR is seen as residual heat from the Big Bang red shifted by the expansion of t he universe. The Big Bang is based on three main purely philosophical assumptions. First there is absolute naturalism with no intelligents or purpose being allowed in the process. The universe is considered to be unbounded with no edge that is no point beyond which there is no mater. Finally there is the cosmological principle which states that the universe looks the same from every place. The goal is to deal with the fact that we seem to be at the center of the universe by making every place look like the center

There Other Naturalistic Cosmologies such as the steady state cosmology which has no beginning or end to the universe but requires a continual source of new matter. There is a new Cosmology called the plasma universe which depicts much of the phenomenon in universe as being electrical in nature. It is not yet fully developed.  

Creationist Cosmologies are based on three main purely philosophical assumptions. The first is God as the creative intelligents with purpose in the process. The universe viewed as bounded with an edge beyond which no mater is found. There is a center to the universe and the Earth is near it. Now this is not Geodetic because the universe does not rotate around the Earth Plugging these assumptions along with the observed expansion into relativity results in time dilation at the center where the Earth would have been producing a time line on Earth consistent with the Biblical account. CBR is seen as the light God created on day one red shifted by an expansion factor of about 3,300.

In conclusion Cosmology deals with the origin, structure, and relationships of the universe but is heavily dependent on philosophical assumptions since we only see the universe a one location that is the Earth. Evolutionary and Creationist Cosmologies are based on different assumptions producing different results for the same data.

Tuesday, November 1, 2011

A Short Look at M–Theory


M-theory is an unification and extension of string theory. String theory requires 6 dimensions beyond the 4 (3 space, 1 time) that we are already familiar with for a total 10 dimensions.  Further more as string theory developed 5 different versions were produced. M-theory resulted from the simple addition of an 11th dimension, resulting in a unification of 5 different versions of String theory.

The result is a unification of the four forces of nature including gravity in a single theory. This accomplishment has one down side and that is the difficulty of finding evidence of these higher dimensions. It does however make predictions that should be testable is the world’s larges super collider. The powerful particle accelerator can produce the energy levels need to look into the small scales where there these extra dimensions can be detected. However this super collider has so far failed to find the evidence predicted by m-theory


It was discovered that by adding this 11th dimension that a string could be stretched out to form a membrane or brane for short. Furthermore strings could be attached to a bane forming the bases for a universe. It provides the vary fabric for space-time general relativity showed exists.


M-theory is a theoretical concept that has much potential. It expands our view of reality beyond which science has previously considered. It opens up new possibilities science would previous been closed to.

Monday, October 31, 2011

Chemistry an Introduction

Chemistry is the field of science that is the study of the interactions of atoms to form molecules and their properties.

Chemistry go back to before known civilization with fire and metal work. Modern Chemistry grew out of Alchemy and its search to turn metals like lead into gold and the so called elixir of life. Chemistry got much from Alchemy particularly its affinity research and experimentation. Once Chemistry broke from Alchemy it lead to an explosion of knowledge about the nature and structure of matter.

Chemistry begins with individual atoms of different elements such as hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Atoms come together to form molecules such as water which is made of one oxygen atom getting together with two hydrogen atoms, methane which is made of one carbon atom getting together with four hydrogen atoms and carbon dioxide which is made of two oxygen atoms getting together with one carbon atom. These are all different substances with different properties.

The Periodic Table is a list of the chemical elements organized by recurring properties. The information about each element included varies but often includes element’s name, atomic number, symbol, and atomic weight. It is a vary use full took in Chemistry and one the most recognizable things associated with Chemistry.

Chemical reactions are the process by which atoms come together or are rearranged to form new molecules. There are two main types of chemical reactions. Endothermic reactions which use heat energy in forming new molecules and exothermic reactions which release heat energy in forming new molecules. Exothermic reactions are some times explosive which is a common danger in Chemistry.

There are two main fields of chemistry. Organic chemistry which is chemistry based on the element Carbon and may or may not involve life and inorganic chemistry which is chemistry not based on the element Carbon.

In conclusion chemistry is a major field of science and it is the most experiment based field of science. Chemistry embodies the ideal of science stated in the scientific method more than any other field of science.

Saturday, October 29, 2011

Why Faster than Light Neutrinos are not a Problem for Relativity.

When CERN reported measuring neutrinos going faster than the speed of light it created speculation that it showed a problem withSpecial Relativity. The measurement was about 20 parts per million faster than light so since the speed of light is 299,792,458 m/s the neutrinos were going 6 km/s faster than light which could easily be an experimental error.

If it is confirmed it would still not be a problem for Special Relativity since not traveling at or faster than the speed of light only applies to particles with a real non zero rest mass. A particle like a photon that has a zero rest mass travels at the speed of light. Particles that travel faster than light have been speculated for years under the name tachyons. Tachyons would have a negative imaginary rest mass giving it a real non zero mass at speeds above the speed of light. It would however be incapable of being decelerated to the speed of light below it.

Furthermore quantum effects such as quantum tunneling provided another way around the light barrier by allowing particles to instantly skip over an area of space without actually going through it while traveling sub light through the space it does go through thus not violating Special Relativity. 

Friday, October 28, 2011

The Carbon Dioxide Pollution Myth

Based on the doctrine of global warming the Environmental Protection Agency has decreed that carbon dioxide is a dangerous pollutant and are regulating it accordingly. This is a totally stupid notion because considering carbon dioxide an air pollutant could not be more absurd. Carbon dioxide is a naturally occurring atmospheric gas that is used by plants and produced by people and animals. Furthermore plants thrive on higher levels of carbon dioxide. It poses no danger to people or animals because we breathe it in and out in every breath of your life with no affects.

When we look at other planets carbon dioxide is shown to the most natural atmospheric gas for terrestrial planetary. There are three terrestrial planets in the Solar system with substantial atmospheres two of them Mars and Venus have largely carbon dioxide atmospheres. Even Earth would have a nitrogen / carbon dioxide atmosphere if plants did not produce lots of free oxygen. So once again the idea of dioxide as a pollutant is absurd.

So doesn’t global warming make it dangerous? Well if you ignore the fact that the computer models used to support man caused global warming make the thermodynamically impossible assumption that as the global temperature raises the amount of heat lost to space goes down and if you ignore Climate Gate which shows that climate data has been manipulated. Even if you ignore all this and take the proponents of global warming at their word, they are only predicting a rise in temperature comparable to that of the Medieval Warm Period. The Medieval Warm Period was actually beneficial allowing the Vikings to reach America and helping Europe recover from the black plaque It resulted in an increased food production and prosperity. So once again carbon idea of dioxide being a pollutant is absurd.

So why did the EPA take such a ludicrous step? The answer is Cap and Trade. President Obama could not get congress to pass Cap and Trade; a scam that would enrich those behind the plan at the expense of the U.S. economy. After congress refused to pass Cap and Trade seeing it as a job killer during a time of high unemployment President Obama used the EPA to do get it by way of regulation. The EPA ruling carbon dioxide as a dangerous pollutant is President Obama’s way of doing this.


Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Moving Things by Force

That which causes a free body to undergo acceleration is called foece.
There are four fundamental forces in Nature. They are gravity which is the mutual attraction of all matter in the universe it is what holds you to the Earth, electromagnetism which is the mutual attraction and repulsion of charged partials, the weak nuclear force is that which regulates types of nuclear decay such as Bata decay by overcoming the strong nuclear force and the strong nuclear force is the binding force that holds the atomic nucleus together against the tendency of positively charged protons.

Force causes mater to accelerate which is the main function of force by definition. It can be used to overcome other forces such as friction gravity. Force also holds things together since the electromagnetic force holds an object together including your body and the strong nuclear force holds atomic nuclei together. It can break things apart such as bombs or the force resulting from ramming two things together which can cause them to shatter and the peaces to fly apart.
Regardless of its source force causes acceleration. Force can also stop acceleration by resisting another force. Force holes thing together so force does indeed bind us together

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Interpreting of the Physics of Quantum Mechanics

The following interpretations are theories to explain the reality going behind Quantum Mechanics. Each theory has unique basic concepts and they are not necessarily mutually exclusive since there is some overlap of concepts. The thought experiment called Schrödinger's cat involved placing a cat in a sealed box with a vile of poison that would kill the cat if broken, a radioactive material and a gaiter counter set to drop a hammer on the vile of poison if it detects a radiometric decay event. When the cat is later observed it is found to be ether alive or dead and each these interpretations has a different description of the state of the cat before it is observed.

According to the Copenhagen interpretation quantum particles don't exist in any one state but exists in all of its possible states at once. Once a quantum particle is observed it is forced take on one of the possible states resulting in the is the state that is actually observed. Since it may be forced into a different state each time is why quantum particles behave erratically. The state of a particle being in all possible states at once is called an object's coherent superposition. When an object is observe the superposition collapses the object is forced into one of the states of its wave function. Schrödinger's cat would be both dead and alive at the same time until actually observed. Ultimately the only thing that really matters are the experimental results it does not really seek to explain what it happening behind the experimental results. Currently it is the most popular interpretation, but it is losing ground.

The consistent histories interpretation works backwards from the results of an experiment claiming that only a few possible histories are consistent with quantum mechanics and that Quantum mechanics simply predicts the probabilities of various alternative histories Schrödinger's cat is either alive or dead but not  both Quantum mechanics just gives the probability of which it may be. This idea is not very popular because it still doesn't explain how a particle can go through two slits and interfere with itself and it is considered by some to be pretty much the same as Copenhagen.

The Transactional interpretation sees quantum mechanical waves as stand waves in space time that constructively interfere were the particle is  and destructively interfere every place else. These waves go both forward and backward in time. There is an "exact canceling" of waves so that is no "net" energy travels backwards in time. In the case of Schrödinger's cat tt is alive until the interference patterns line up in the sample to result in a decay event.
The Bohm interpretation or pilot-wave theory depicts the quantum wave guides the particle. It is totally deterministic and good at explaining quantum phenomenon but requires a large number of hidden variables that can not be directly measured. The hidden variables have the side affect of rendering the interpretation untestable. Schrödinger's cat is alive until one the pilot-waves in the sample to causes a decay event.

The many-worlds interpretation sees the world as constantly splitting off into multiple universes in which every possible quantum event occurs. This fits perfectly with Evolution even the most improbable events occurred in some of these universes. Schrödinger's cat the universe keeps spitting off into each alternative in one the cat lives and in the other dies. They both happen in different quantum universes. No evidence exists for this interpretation since the alterative worlds would be forever out of reach. While quantum interference between adjacent worlds has been suggested, the possible evidence for it. Successful interpretation of single particle interference is not unique to the Many-worlds interpretation. So acceptance of this interpretation is purely philosophical and not scientific since it can not be tested.

With consciousness causes collapse consciousness collapses the quantum mechanical waves when an observation is made. There is some supporting evidence for this though the evidence is not exclusive to this interpretation. It is compatible with General Intelligent Design as well.  This supporting evidence comes from the human brain. It turns out that synaptic activity in the brain requires quantum tunneling on demand. This shows some degree of control by the mind of quantum wave functions. Thus view fits well with both New Age / Hinduism, and the Christian world view. With New Age / Hinduism it provides a way for the mind to interact with the world beyond the five senses. With the Christian world view, since God is the ultimate mind it provides a model for his interaction with our world.  Schrödinger's cat It would be both alive and dead until observed then the mind of the observer would collapse the wave function choosing one or the other. It is similar to the Copenhagen interpretation in this regard.
General Intelligent Design also known as General Grand Unification (GGU) was published by Dr. Robert A. Herrmann professor of Mathematics retired U. S. Naval Academy. By this view quantum mechanical waves and their collapse results from intelligent agents that determine the states resulting from the waves' collapse. These intelligent agents could be one or more intelligent beings or mechanisms preprogrammed by an intelligent being.  This is supported by evidence of synaptic activity in the brain requiring quantum tunneling on demand showing some degree of intelligent control of quantum wave functions.This interpretation fits well with the Christian world view. The idea of an intelligence controlling the universe at its fundamental level fits well with God as described in the Bible. In the case of Schrödinger's cat, the cat is a live until the controlling intelligent agent decides to cause a decay event to takes place and then the cat dies.

The relationship between the mind and Quantum Mechanics is mentioned here because it provides evidence in support for the last two interpretations consciousness causes collapse and General Intelligent Design. It turns out that the synaptic barriers of dendrite brain cells are too thick for nerve signals to classically cross. This means that nerve signals need to use Quantum tunneling to cross the dendrite synaptic barrier. The odds of the nerve signal tunneling across the dendrite synaptic barrier are 1 chance in  10,000,000,  Yet for our brains to function these tunneling events need to occur on demand this is evidence for the mind being able to control quantum phenomenon and against the naturalistic model of the mind as well.
In conclusion there are many ways of interpreting Quantum Mechanics. Acceptance or rejection of each often has more to do with philosophy than science. each fits better with some philosophical views than others and each interpretation differs in how it sees the fundamental nature of reality.

Monday, October 24, 2011

The Work of Energy In Physics

The ability of a system to do work is called energy and Special Relativity shows that energy has mass and that the mass of all matter is a result of energy, so that all substance is based on energy. The 1st Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy in any interaction is conserved. The result is that is the total amount of energy in the universe is constant. It is also stated as energy can not be created or destroyed but it can change forms.

Here are some common types of energy. Heat energy is the energy associated with the temperature of an object. Light energy is the energy associated with visible light. Electrical energy is the energy associated with an electric current. Chemical energy is the energy associated with the reactions involving molecules. Nuclear energy is the energy associated with reactions involving atomic nuclei. Kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion.  Potential energy is the energy of a system based on its position or condition. Stored energy. Rest mass energy is the energy of an object that is not in motion. E= mc2.

Energy is one of the three main parts of the Universe space, time and mass and relativity shows them to be inter-related. Space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity. Furthermore mass warps space-time forming Gravity and the motion of mass contracts both space and time. 

In conclusion in common experience energy is what moves us and allows us to move thing. Physics has shown it to be a lot more. It is a fundamental part of the universe.

Saturday, October 22, 2011

What's Matters in Physics

Anything that has mass and occupies volume is called Matter:. In general it is the substance of which all physical objects are made. Mass is in the generally sense it is the amount of matter in an object. It is the term for two properties of matter that are equal in value: inertial mass gravitational mass. Inertial Mass is the resistance of a body to acceleration when responding to force. Gravitational Mass is  the property of an object that determines the strength of its gravitational field and its reaction to gravity.

The existence of a relationship between the inertial and gravitational mass of an object is evident from the fact that they have same the value. However General Relativity shows that inertial and gravitational mass are two aspects of the same thing. Special Relativity shows that an objects mass is equivalent to the amount of energy an object contains.

Normal Matter is composed of atoms. Atoms are a nucleus; made of protons and neutrons; with electrons around it. This form of matter in what we commonly experience. Matter makes up everything around us, everything we see, everything we touch and even our bodies. Matter is one of the three main parts of the Universe Space, Time and Mass. (matter) Relativity shows them to be inter-related in that space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity called space-time. Furthermore mass warps space-time forming gravity and the motion of mass contracts both space and time. In common experience matter is what makes up objects around us and Physics has shown that it to be a lot more. Matter is a fundamental part of the universe.

Friday, October 21, 2011

Motion in Physics How it Moves

The change in an object’s location of with respect to time is called motion. Strait line motion is the most basic form of motion involving strait ling notion with no force involved thus no acceleration and a constant velocity. Circular motion is motion around a central point it results from a force being applied to an object at a right angle to the objects motion such as gravity keeping a satellite in orbit is a good example.

Relativity theory shows that all motion is relative since it can only be measured relative to a given observer. These measurements are also reversible such that if I see someone moving a given direction at a given speed, he sees me going the opposite direction at the same speed. Motion is describes the changing of location of an object. Motion can be both strait and curved. It can only be described relative to a chosen point of reference. Motion is how we get from place to place.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Quantization in the science of Quantum Mechanics

The situation where physical quantities such as position, energy and momentum can only have certain discrete values are called Quantization.When in free empty space these values are continuous when bound to an area of space these properties can only have certain discrete values. The energy contained in a given frequency of electromagnetic waves is quantized in that it always has the same value at the same frequency. The electromagnetic energy is found in discrete packet called photons.

The quantization of the electron energy inside an atom explains much of the behavior of atoms such as why atoms emit only discrete frequencies of light. An electron in a low orbit of an atom will absorb a photon causing the electron to jump to a higher orbit and then emits a photon jumping back to the lower orbit.

The quantization of space-time has its bases in two of Max Planck’ natural units that are based on five universal physical constants: Gravitational constant, Reduced Planck constant, Speed of light in a vacuum, Coulomb constant, and Boltzmann's constant  The two with physical significance are Planck Length and Planck Time are the smallest possible measurements of space-time according our current understanding of the laws of Physics because of the  uncertainty principle when a plied to these scales. This suggests that time and space themselves are Quantized. The smallest measurement of length that has any meaning with in the laws of physics as we understand them today is called Planck Length and it has a value of 1.616 252 × 10−35 m. The amount of time it takes a photon to cross a Planck Length. It is the smallest measurement of time that has any meaning with in the laws of physics as we understand them today is called Planck Time with a value of 5.391 24 × 10−44 s.

Quantization requires physical quantities like position, energy and momentum to have discrete values explaining much of what goes on in side atom and based on our current understanding of the laws of physics it suggest that time and space are quantized.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Quantum Nonlocality its every ware

The phenomenon by which measurements made at a subatomic level necessarily refutes the notions of local realism is called Quantum Nonlocality. Put simply it says that particles of matter are not restricted to local interactions and that they can have interactions outside their local system with no limit on distance.

Bell's Theorem was developed by John Stewart Bell and shows that there is no physical theory of local hidden variables that can ever reproduce all of the predictions of Quantum Mechanics. Bell's Theorem leaves open the possibility of non-local hidden variables.

The implications are that subatomic particles clearly exhibit non-local behavior showing that our notions of location do not apply at the fundamental levels of reality. Quantum Nonlocality creates a link between the physical and metaphysical.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

The Spook Action at a Distance Called Quantum Entanglement

The phenomenon in which the quantum states of two or more objects have to be described with reference to each other, even though the individual objects may be separated in space is called Quantum Entanglement. Einstein said  it was “Spook action at a distance”  This results in a correlation between the observable physical properties of the systems such that a change in one object causes an instantaneous change in the other.

Because of Special Relativity  classical information is generally thought being incapable  being sent faster than light by this means. This is because the two particles need to be near each other to become entangled, or they need an intermediate particle, which has to be near one particle and then the other. But this would not prevent the possibility of sending information faster than light in cases where the sender and receiver were originally near each other and then separated such as s apace ship leaving Earth and using such a means for communications. Quantum entanglement is a quantum effect that has no parallel in Classical mechanics.

Monday, October 17, 2011

Two great places to get free science images

Finding images to use on your website can be hard. On some cases could own but not always. Here are two great places to get lots and lots of images that you can freely use.

Saturday, October 15, 2011

Quantum Tunneling an Effect of Quantum Mechanics

The process by which a particle gets across a barrier that it can not classically pass is called Quantum tunneling. Related to Wave-particle duality; Quantum tunneling results from the wave nature of a particle were the probability of the particle getting through the barrier drops exponentially with the thickness of the barrier.

When the wave comes in contact with the barrier most of it bounces off the carrier but a small amount passes through the barrier; but that amount decays exponentially with the thickness of the barrier.  Such that the amplitude of the initial wave increases then the amplitude of the wave on the opposite side of the barrier increases. If the barrier thickness increases, the amplitude of the wave on the opposite side of the barrier decreases. If the energy of the initial wave increases, (wavelength decreases) the amplitude of the wave on the opposite side of the barrier increases. If the waves energy greater than that of the barrier it all passes through the barrier but with a longer wavelength For particles most of them bounce off while a few instantly get through.

Theoretically valid Quantum tunneling is at the macroscopic but the odds of it occurring are extremely small. As a result there is a non zero probability that you could run your car into a brick wall an suddenly find yourself safely on the other side. However please don’t try it because the odds that it will happen are so small as to be impossible by any reasonable definition so if try it you will die.

Tunneling gets subatomic particles across barriers they normally can not cross. The number of particles that gets across the barrier drops exponentially with the barrier thickness. The number of particles that gets across the barrier increases with the energy of the particle. Quantum tunneling is a purely quantum effect. It has no counter part in Classical mechanics. It could theoretically occur on the macroscopic scale but the odds are too small to ever see it happen.

Superconduction an Effect of Quantum Mechanics

The property that occurs in certain materials below a characteristic temperature where they have an electrical resistance of exactly zero is called superconduction. Discovered in 1911 it took years to find a theory that allowed superconduction to be understood.

At a critical temperature that varies with the substance the electrical resistance will suddenly drops to zero.  The basic theory is that at the critical temperature electrons become coupled over a ranger of about 1,000 X the spacing of the conductor’s lattice with a binding energy that is the result of vibration that the electrons cause in the lattice. Called cooper pairs, the coupled electrons effectively becomes a boson and condense into the ground state. The result is that each coupled electron helps the other over come any resistance encountered from the lattice.

The Meissner Effect is where a magnetic field is expelled from a superconductor during the transition to the superconducting state that is caused by electric currents generated near its surface by the applied field. The magnetic field of these currents cancels out the applied magnetic field within the superconductor. This causes the magnetic levitation associated with superconductors.

Superconductivity is a purely quantum effect that has no counter part in classical physics. It’s most commonly known effect is magnetic levitation. It is one of two purely quantum effects that are seen on a macroscopic scale.

Friday, October 14, 2011

Superfluids a stange Quantum Effect

A superfluid is a liquid that has no viscosity and infinite thermal conductivity. Superfluids appears as normal liquids but flow without friction past any surface allowing it to continue to circulate over obstructions and through pores in its container do only to its own inertia.

The atoms in a superfluid all exist in the same quantum state so they all have the same momentum such that if one moves they all move allowing superfluids to move without friction even through the tiniest of cracks. Superfluid helium will flow up the sides of a jar and over the top. Superfluity is a purely quantum effect that has no counter part in classical physics. It is one of two purely quantum effects that are seen on a macroscopic scale.

Atoms Are Every Thing

The basic unit of matter is called the atom. Atoms consists of a dense, central positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment conducted in 1911 involved shooting alpha particles (He nuclei) at a gold foil to observe how they are scattered by the gold on a screen. It probed the structure of the Atom.  

If atoms had been a solid mass few if any alpha particles would gotten through. If negative electron were embedded in a thin positive mass all of the alpha particles would get through. However most of the alpha particles get through with some being scattered by the small positive nucleus. Rutherford’s conclusion was that the atoms is mostly empty space with a small positive nucleus surrounded by electrons scattered through out the surrounding space. In such a model the electron can not stand still since if they did they fall into the nucleus

This resulted in efforts to model the atom as a solar system known as the planetary model with electrons orbiting the nucleus like planets around a star. The problem with the planetary model is that electrons are charged particles and an accelerating charge emits light loosing energy and this would cause the electron to spiral into the nucleus.

Broglie had shown that particles have wave like propertied. Bohr went on to show that these waves could be bent into orbits like those expected for an electron with the result that electrons can only occupy those orbits with exactly a whole number of wavelengths. In these orbits the waves are add together with constructive interference. If an orbit has a fractional number of wavelengths the wave would destructively interfere and not persist so an electron can not occupy such an obit. The result is that that electrons jump from orbit to orbit emitting photons when going to a lower orbit and absorbing photons are when going to a higher orbit. It turns out that transitions between the possible electron orbits, matches the spectral lines that are actually observed in hydrogen. This was a major step in development quantum Mechanics.

Studying elements other hydrogen included the effects of multiple electrons resulted in the electron orbital five of which are shown above. They are places in an atom where electrons can actually be found. The shapes of these orbitals were originally found mathematically and they have long been viewed as purely mathematical abstractions that were never expected to be seen. Physics students have long been told this however field-emission electron microscopy has changed this. he imaging of actual electron orbitals was a surprise but it vividly shows the accuracy of Quantum Mechanics.

Thursday, October 13, 2011

The Principle of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

The Uncertainty Principle is the principle of Quantum Mechanics that there is a limit on the accuracy of simultaneous measurement of physical quantities like a particle's position and momentum. The Uncertainty Principle was published by Werner Heisenberg in 1927  being based on the fact that the light needed to observe a subatomic particle will disturb thay particle making measurements uncertain though it goes way beyond that.

Planck's constant is too small for the uncertainty principle to show up in the macroscopic world even though it is significant in the subatomic world. It results in the fact that the more accurately one measures a particle's position the less accurately one can measure its momentum and one measures a particle's momentum the less accurately one can measure its position. This does not happen just because the act of measurement disturbs the system; which it only does sometimes; it is actually related to Wave-particle duality. The same principle applies to other quantities like energy and time.

More recent developments has changed the debate between determinism and freewill. The idea is that the uncertainty principle is a possible avenue for allowing for freewill in neurology. The evidence involves quantum, mechanical processes like tunneling being involved in synapse activity.

The Uncertainty Principle shows us that we are limited in our ability to make measurements of the subatomic world. It shows that there are limits to our possible knowledge about the universe.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

On Wave-particle duality from Quantum Mechanics

Wave-Particle Duality is the ptindiples that light and matter exhibit the properties of both waves and particles. This is a key concept of quantum mechanics shows that subatomic particles have a dual nature that is some times they act like particles, exhibiting properties like scattering and at other times they behave as waves, exhibiting properties like interference and diffraction.

The photoelectric effect is the case where photons of light eject electrons from a sheet of metal like interacting partials are supposed to behave. The Davission-Germer experiment has an electron beam is aimed a nickel crystal in whith the resulting scattering has peeks and valise do to diffraction.

In conclusion matter behaves as both particles and waves. The wave nature is related to the probability of finding a particle at a given location at a given time.

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Physics and Newton's Third Law of Motion

Newton's 3rd law states that for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction. Put another way when you push on an object it pushes you back.

Newton's 3rd law starts with conservation of momentum Conservation of momentum states  that the total change in a system’s motion to be zero. As a result moving a mass requires moving another mass in the opposite direction.

Rockets are the best example and the flame that is seen coming from the bottom of the rocket is propellant mass that is being ejected from the engines. This mass provides the action whose reaction pushes the rocket forward. Jets work on same basic principle but the main differ deference between a jet and a rocket is that jets take in air as part of their propellant mass making them more efficient than rockets since they are nor required to carry all that mass onboard.

The basic concept of Newton's 3rd law is that two masses push on each other with equal force. Equal mass will move away at the same speed. When one mass is smaller the other and if the force is kept the same, the smaller mass moves away faster and the heavier mass moves at the same speed as before. If one keeps the masses the same as in the last example but this time the force is larger then they both fly apart faster. The smaller mass still moves much faster than the larger mass.

One thing that is a little counter interactive is the fact that when a car that is being driven down the road, the Earth is actually being pushed in the opposite direction. To be fair this affect is extremely small but it is sill not zero and the traffic that is going opposite direction averages out to zero net force. It gets even stranger since even when you are just walking around you are actually pushing the Earth in the opposite direction. Once again it is still an extremely small, in fact much smaller than in a car; but still not zero. Furthermore all the people and animals in the world the affect will still average out to be zero. Like wise when a planet moves around its star the planet pulls back on the star causing it to wobble slightly. This is a main way that extra Solar planets are detected.  

Newton's 3rd law of Motion boils down to the fact that when one object pushes on another object, the second object pushes back. It is an important part of every change in motion in the universe because with out it no changes in motion would ever occur in the universe.

Monday, October 10, 2011

Analysis of 500 planets Indicates that Alien life is Impossible.

Dr. Howard Smith said “We have found that most other planets and solar systems are wildly different from our own. They are very hostile to life as we know it,”
The point is that the planets found outside are just too hustle for life. Even Gliese 581 which is the most Earth like planet ever found is still quite hustle to life since it is probably tidally locked to its star. The simple fact is that the more we learn about other planetary systems the less likely that there are any ET’s out there.

Saturday, October 8, 2011

Newton's Second Law of Motion and Physics

The principle that states that a mass acted on by a force undergoes acceleration in the direction of the force, with a magnitude inversely proportional to the mass and proportional to the force is called  Newton's 2nd Law of Motion.

According to Newton's 2nd Law a force that is applied to a mass produces a steady increase in speed. Also decreasing the mass and increasing the force produces a faster increase in speed, while increasing the mass and decreasing the force produces a slower increase in speed.

Every change in motion in the Universe is based on Newton's 2nd Law including both changes in speed and direction. It is indeed fundamental to understanding of motion since without it changes in motion can not be properly understood.

Friday, October 7, 2011

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle in Quantum Mechanics

The uncertainty principle is the Quantum Mechanical principle that there is a limit to the accuracy of simultaneous measurement of physical quantities like momentum and position.

The uncertainty principle was published by Werner Heisenberg in 1927 and is based on the fact that the light needed to observe a subatomic particle will disturb it making measurements uncertain though it goes beyond that. Planck's constant is too small for the uncertainty principle to show up in the macroscopic world but it is significant in the subatomic world.

So the more accurately you measures a particle's position the less accurately that you can measure its momentum and vice versa. This is not the case just because the act of measurement disturbs the system; which it only does sometimes; it is related to Wave-particle duality. The same applies to other quantities as well such as energy and time.

A recent development in the debate between determinism and freewill is the idea that the uncertainty principle is a possible avenue for allowing for freewill in neurology. This based on evidence of quantum, mechanical processes like tunneling being involved in synapse activity.

The uncertainty principle shows that that there are limits to our ability to make measurements of the subatomic world. It shows that there are limits to our possible knowledge about the universe.  

Thursday, October 6, 2011

Newton's first Law of Motion an important law of Physics

Newton's 1st Law of Motion states that a body will remain in motion or remain at rest unless it is acted on by an out side force. This law is also known as the law of inertia because inertia is the resistance to changes in motion. Newton's first Law shows that an object continues to move without changes in its motion until a force is imparted on it.

Every movement we make uses of Newton's 1st Law. Without the fist law of motion controlling motion is probably not even be possible. All possible methods of controlling motion depend on the first law. The 1st law of motion shows that motion remains the same without an outside force. We use it in every move we make.

The Scientific Use of Dimensions as Directions

Directions that are mutually perpendicular to each other are called dimensions. The common depiction of individual dimensions on a graph is as an axis lines that show the direction of that particular dimension.

Building dimensions begins ar a point which has of zero dimensions. A point can be expanded into one dimension forming a line of two dimensions. A lined can then be expanded into two dimensions so as to form a plane. Finally the plain can be expanded into three dimensions forming a space of three dimensions.. This process can be continued with out end. Theoretically there is no limit to the number of dimensions. In spite of our existence has only three spacial dimensions any number of dimensions is theoretically possible.

In physics dimensions have been classically used to refer to space however Spacial Relativity added time as a dimension. Cosmological Relativity adds cosmic expansion velocity as a dimension. String theory uses from 10 - 26 dimensions and its child M theory uses 11 dimensions. Mathematically there in no limit to the number of possible dimensions from zero to infinite dimensions. In fact Nth dimensional modeling is useful for dealing with any set of properties as if they were physical dimensions.

While dimensions are primarily used to describe space and time though some physical theories use more than three spacial dimensions specifically string theory. They can also be used to model the distribution of non spacial properties.

Wednesday, October 5, 2011

Space Its More than the Final Frontier

The three dimensional extent in which objects and events occur with a relative position to other objects and events is called space. In a more general sense space can refer to an nth dimensional hyper-volume. The notion of higher dimensions has gained more acceptability in physics with M-Theory. This opens the door to possibilities such as the supernatural that are usually considered out side the realm of science.

Often illustrated by 3 lines representing the three dimensions of space are the lines of  the axis of a 3d graph. In 3d space you can move in 3 directions forwards and backwards; up and down and left to right. General Relativity depicts space and time as a fabric that can be warped, bent, twisted, stretched and contracted. Quantum Mechanics describes subatomic particles coming and going even in a vacuum. Space is not empty, it is not nothing. Yes I am well aware that  this is a double negative however empty space is normally thought of as nothing but it is something.

Basic SI unit – meter (m) which is the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second. The most common methods of measuring space are rulers but odometers are another common way of measuring distance and there by space. Other methods include bouncing light, radio waves, or sound off of an object using the return time to measure distance. These include radar and sonar. Parallax uses geometry to measure distance it is used in Astronomy and land surveying.

Distance and position must be measured according to some standard. The standard has to be a chosen point in space. The point is selected by ether convenience or convention with out such a starting point determining distance and position is impossible..

Space is one of the three main parts of the Universe space, time and mass. Relativity shows them to be inter-related with space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity.  Intern mass warps space-time forming gravity and motion of mass contracts both space and time. Based on common experience space is basically where you are. You are at a particular point in space relative to other objects. Physics however has shown it to be a lot more. It is a fundamental part of the universe.

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Now It’sTime for Physics.

The observed sequences of events is called time. In physics it is seen as a 4th dimension

Time‘s basic SI unit for is the second. Its duration is defined as a 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation of the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium133 atom. It was originally defined based on a day. The week is the only time unit not based on an astronomical period being based on the Jewish Sabbath cycle which is based on the creation week of Genesis 1.  The calendar year is rounded to 365 days with a leap day every 4 years.

According to Special and General Relativity time is a 4th dimension. It is unique in that we only travel through time one way. (forward).  Time is one of the three main parts of the Universe: space, time and mass. Relativity shows them to be inter-related with space and time are so interrelated that they form a single entity.  Mass warps space-time forming gravity and motion of mass contracts both space and time.

We perceive the rate of time as variable but time is always experienced in the same way. We remember the past, we exist in the present and we look forward to the future. In our common experience time is the sequence of events we experience. Physics has shown that it is to be a lot more. It is a fundamental part of the universe.

Monday, October 3, 2011

Collisions a Physics Hit

Any event in which two or more bodies exert relatively high forces on each other for a short period of time is known as a collision.

Collision where the total kinetic energy of the particles before and after the encounter is the same is called elastic collision.

Collision where  the total kinetic energy of the particles before and after the encounter is not the same is called inelastic collision.

The danger caused by collisions is a result of the sudden high acceleration whic can damage equipment, cause injuries and even kill. It can cause damage from the deformation of object. It can cause colliding objects to shatter and fly apart at high speeds.

On the other hand collisions can hammer nails. They are used in sports such as pool, golf, and baseball. They have also been used to probe the makeup of matter by way of near light speed collisions inside particle accelerators.

In conclusion collisions are sudden interactions that can be elastic or inelastic. They can be dangerous and destructive but yet they can be useful.

Saturday, October 1, 2011

Looking at Astronomy.

The science that studied celestial objects and phenomena originating outside the Earth's atmosphere is called Astronomy.

Astronomy’s main activity is the observation of celestial objects measuring their properties such a mss, diameter, brightness and composition. Observations are usually made by way of some form of telescope. The types of telescopes used include visible light, radio, inferred, ultraviolet, X – ray, and gamma ray telescopes.

The telescope has produced a quantum leap in astronomy allowing observations beyond the rage of the unaided eye. Since its introduction developments in telescope technology have opened up many new ways of looking at the Universe. Professional astronomy has often come to be seen as equivalent to astrophysics

The twentieth century produced a division of astronomy into two main fields. Observational Astronomy is the acquiring of data from observations and analyzing that data using physics. Theoretical Astronomy is the development of computer models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena.

Today Observational and Theoretical Astronomy complement each other. The theoretical Seeks to explain observations and observations used to test the theoretical. Amateur astronomers have also contributed to many important astronomical discoveries making astronomy one of the few sciences that amateurs can still play an active role.